Noroviruses are recognized as an important cause of outbreaks of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis. This review deals with the current status and future directions for noroviruses detection in water. Currently there are no standard methods available for the concentration of noroviruses from water or other environmental samples. Noroviruses cannot be cultivated in cell culture nor passed in animal models. RT-PCR assays are currently the most widely used method for detection of noroviruses in water and other environmental samples. However, the analytical sensitivity for molecular methods is unknown. Molecular methods need to be refined and standardized through further development of procedures to simplify viral nucleic acid extraction, the RT-PCR process, and the development of primers and probes that can detect a majority of noroviruses present in environmental samples. Moreover, methods need to be developed to determine the infectious virus.
- drinking water
- © IWA Publishing 2004