A homogeneous catalyst, iron-tetrasulfophthalocyanine (FeTsPc), was electrostatically immobilized on the powdered anion exchange resin (Amb-FeTsPc) for the enhanced removal of selected pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) (cefaclor, diclofenac, ibuprofen and bisphenol-A). It removed 40 ∼ 99% of four target pollutants. Moreover, the removal efficiencies were augmented to >99% in combination with hydrogen peroxide owing to the oxidation of pollutants via activated FeTsPc. The effect of pH on the removal efficiency was investigated in relation to the physicochemical properties, such as hydrophilicity, electric charge and oxidability, of target pollutants. The Amb-FeTsPc/ultrafiltration hybrid system showed high removal efficiencies for target compounds with negative charge and/or high oxidability (bisphenol-A: ∼90%, cefaclor: ∼100%, diclofenac: ∼100%) but relatively low removal efficiency for target compounds with low oxidability (ibuprofen: ∼60%) for 8 h of operation time. The removal mechanisms for all four compounds by Amb-FeTsPc were also investigated in terms of adsorption, ion exchange and oxidability.
- endocrine disrupting chemicals
- hybrid system
- Received May 4, 2009.
- Accepted August 18, 2009.
- © IWA Publishing 2010