This study aims at the development of an optimization model based on artificial immune systems (AIS) to minimize cost designs of water distribution networks (WDNs). Clonal selection algorithm (Clonalg), a class of AIS, was used as an optimization technique in the model, and its mutation operation was modified to increase the diversity (search capability). EPANET, a widely known WDN simulator, was used in conjunction with the proposed model. The model was applied to four WDNs of Two-loop, Hanoi, Go Yang, New York City, and the results obtained were compared with other heuristic and mathematical optimization models in the related literature, such as harmony search, genetic algorithm, immune algorithm, shuffled complex evolution, differential evolution, and non-linear programming-Lagrangian algorithm. Furthermore, the modified Clonalg was compared with the classic Clonalg in order to demonstrate the impact of the modification on the diversity. The proposed model appeared to be promising in terms of cost designs of WDNs.
- artificial immune systems
- water distribution network
- First received 19 March 2014.
- Accepted in revised form 19 June 2014.
- © IWA Publishing 2015